LTE protocol stack for 3GPP standard specifications consists of four core parts: MAC (TS36.321), RLC (TS36.322), PDCP (TS36.323), and RRC (TS36.331).
There are already several commercial products for LTE protocol stack in the market: 4M Wireless's PS100 Protocol Stack (http://www.4mwireless.com/), Nomor Research's LTE Radio Protocol Stack (http://www.nomor.de/), SySDSoft's LTE Protocol Stack (http://www.sysdsoft.com/), and Aricent's Protocol Stack Solution (http://www.aricent.com/).
IPR licensing candidate analysis for LTE protocol stack products in the lists of patents declared essential to LTE appear at the ETSI IPR Online shows that there are 79 issued patents and 85 published patent applications in the United States as of July 31, 2009.
As for the issued patents, Nokia is the leader in IPR share (41 %) followed by Ericsson (29 %) and Qualcomm (23 %).
As for the published patent applications, Nokia is the leader in IPR share (32 %) followed by Qualcomm (28 %), and InterDigital (24 %).
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